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Stuttering is a speech disorder. In stammering speech rhythm is interrupted by uncontrolled replications and continuations of voices. In such cases a stutterer has difficulty in pronunciation of syllables, sounds or sayings.Sometimes the speech is blocked reflexively and soundless silences may occur followingly. In the other times syllables, vocables or phrases are redoubled and take longer than expected involuntarily. Speech disfluency may occur both in children or adults. Some children may have stuttering two to five year age range in the childhood. The breaking in fluent speech may go on for more than a few weeks up to some years. However a limited number of children can not get rid of stuttering which is named developmental stuttering. The incidence of stuttering is more common in male child than female child. It also has a tendency to keep on puberty and adulthood mostly in teen boys than in teen girls. What are the causes and risk factors of stuttering? It has been proved that speech disfluency is a genetic disorder. On the other hand it has been identified that sturtering can be an outcome of several brain and nerve system injuries such as stroke or concussion of the brain and traumatic brain injuries. The sort of stammering named psychogenic stuttering is an psychogenic disorder that may rarely seen because of having psychological problems, being under psychological pressure, psychological influences, emotional stress and emotional anxiety. What are the signs of stammering? Stuttering may generally begin with repeating strong consonants k, t and soft consonant g. As it develops and goes on worse syllables, terms and phrases are replicated in turn. The stutterer may seem to be struggling to talk because of the vocal spasms. The social surroundings, anxiety in children, anxiety-provoking and similar cases can increase symptoms of stuttering.

The other major signs of stuttering are: Uneasyness in communicating with other people, making a pause and hesitation during the speech, and setting in additional noises or vocable e.g. I looked at the…uhhh…mirror. Repetition of words, voices and part of sentences e.g. I wish…I wish my teddy bear or mo-mo-mo-mommy. Prolongations or extremely extended echos within sounds e.g. I am Jooooonnny Black or Looooooove. Inflexion and stress in the in the tone of voice. Eye blinks reflex, involuntary movement of head or other parts of body. In more severe cases, blocks may be experienced in which may be practiced freezing of the movement of the tongue, lips or vocal folds. There is not any test system for diagnosing of speech-language pathology. Then, diagnosis of speech defects may need discussion with a speech pathologist. How stuttering can be treated? There is not any medication or drug therapy to deactivate stuttering. It is not yet proved that electronic devices are helpful for stuttering. There is not any knowledge and information for preventing stuttering. Speech therapy may be an alternative to smooth away stammering. Speech therapy may help those who have insufficiency of speech and may formulate the speech flowing or smoother. In order to help a stutterer or stammerer to feel better about speech disfluency whether he or she is a child or adult parents and friends are adviced to: Avoid discussing about the stuttering in order not to cause the child or adult more self-consciousness and lack of self-confidence. Listen tolerantly to the stutterer with making eye contact. Do not break in and complete the sentence for stammerer. Speak openly about their speech disorder and annoyance when the child or adult brings it up. Have a discussion with the speech therapist about when and how to softly pick up the stuttering. Self-help groups are often ready to lend a hand for the stuttering children, stuttering adults and family.

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