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Liver

Liver is a visceral organ of vertebrates. This vital organ lays in the upper right part of abdomen, underneath diaphragm and over stomach. The liver neoplasm and liver cancer starts in the cells of hepatic lobe. The signs of liver cancer are: Unwanted weight loss, upper abdominal pain known as epigastralgia, Feeling of abdominal bloating, appetite loss, liver enlargement known as hepatosplenomega, colorless chalky stools, jaundice as yellowness in skin and whites of the eyes, general signs of tiredness and utter exhaustion, severe nausea and vomiting. In case of these bothering symptoms one should seek medical advice of internal diseases specialist or hepatologist. Although the cause of liver cancer is not clear yet, it is strongly believed that hepatitis viruses and hepatitis virus infections can be the cause of liver cancer. For an unknown reason, normal liver cells begin to be mutated in their DNA. The mutated liver cells start to develop uncontrollable and form a mass of cancerous cells named tumor. The types of liver cancers are: The most familiar type of main liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma. It forms in the hepatocyte. Bile duct cancer known as cholangiocarcinoma type develop in the hepatic duct or bile ducts inside the liver. Hepatoblastoma is another kind of liver cancer which has an effect on babyhood and childhood. One more type of liver cancer forms in the blood vessels of the liver called hepatic vein is angiosarcoma or hemangiosarcoma. This type of liver cancer grows up too fast. What are the risk factors of liver cancer? 1-Sex differences: Male are more probably to contract cancer liver cancer than are female. 2- Chronic liver diseases and infections as hepatitis b virus infection in short HBV or hepatitis c virus infection in short HCV enhance liver cancer risk. 3- Cirrhosis of the liver may form scar tissue that may cause kupffer’s cells deformation.

4- Diabetics are at more risk rather than nondiabetics because of the rise of the blood sugar level known as hyperglycemia. 5- Genetic liver diseases as hemochromatosis and wilson disease may be risky for the next generations. 6- Fatty liver syndrome may be the reason of liver cancer because of the accumulation of carbonated non-alcoholic beverages in the liver. 7- Alcoholism and drinking alcohol to excess habitually damages the liver and causes liver cancer. 8- Body mass index in short BMI is important in getting liver cancer. Excess weight and obesity is a serious risk to contract all forms of cancer.9- Avoid unprotected sexual intercourse! Be sure that the sexual partner is not HBV-infected or HCV-infected. The best way to know the healthiness status of any sexual partner is using a condom during sexual intercourse.10- Try to avoid intravenous injections in short IV such as depilation, piercing and tattoo. In case of having nothing else to do one might be sure usage of sterile needle and paraphernalia.11- Do not pass over the hepatitis B vaccine. Liver cancer diagnosed by blood tests, imaging tests as computerized tomography scan in short CT, magnetic resonance imaging in short MRI and ultrasound. Liver biopsy is also needed. Treatments of the liver cancer are: 1- Hepatectomy is a surgery in which cancerous cells are partly removed from liver. 2- Cryoablation is a technique in which liver malignant tumors are frozen with liquid nitrogen straightly by guide of ultrasound and monitor. 3- Alcohol injection into cancerous cells throughout the skin or surgically is another method in liver cancer treatment. 4- Chemoembolization is a method in which stiff doses of anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs are injected into the hepatic artery in order to prevent metastasizing. Then hepatic vein is blocked. 5- Hepatic transplantation is an ablation or liver transplant surgery in which the diseased liver is wholly removed and transplanted with a healthy liver from a donor.

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