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Infant Development

The newborn is a full term inculiding, both premature infants and postmature infants. The newborn baby is the youngest mammal of human being as known offspring who has given exceptional powers for surviving mankind and progress of mankind. The offspring is a newborn who is within seconds, minutes and hours after the delivery. Meanwhile infant is unable to speak. However infant speaks by crying and in sign language. Infant applied to babies’ age range of one month to twelve months, or more thirtysix months. Physical characteristics analyse of an infant: The birth weight of a postmature infant is about 3.2 kg, height 35.0 to 50.6 cm. The newborn has thin, narrow shoulders and hips. It has a little protruded abdomen and comparatively short arms and legs. An infant has a very big head and cranium as against its body. The skull of a newborn is cartilage bone known as fontanel. In other words the scalp has not yet turned into bones. The reason for this is form changes of skull during birth or intranatal. A newborn may be bald or haired. Some babies may have body hair known as lanugo. The newborn’s hair and lanugo vanish away in a few weeks. The digestive system of an infant is full of some kind of stuff colored dark greenish named meconium. The skin color of a baby is gray or grayish during the first seconds. The normal tone of skin comes after newborn begins to breathe. A newborn baby is bloody and wet. An infant has coated with an organic substance called vernix coseosa. Infants have enlarged breasts and genitals whether male or female. The newborn’ umbilical cord is cut after birth. The umbilical scar goes better in three weeks. Immediately after the birth a newborn must learn to live out of uterus. The sensations of newborn babies are too strong.Besides, infants enjoy the feeling of gentle stroking, soft cuddling, kindliness and caressing. Babies generally like rocking to sleep, being done massages or warm bathings.

Infants are in need of sucking their thumbs initiatively therefore they love baby pacifier. Newborns try to explain their feelings by crying. Breastfeeding is the best type of feeding styles. In case of non-breastfeeding, wet nurse, bottle feeding or infant formula is preferred. Newborns have sucking reflex in their nature. They are always in the behavior of seeking for nipple. If an infant can not be breastfeeded then nipple of baby-bottle may satisfy their rooting reflex. As months passed newborn grows up and needs additional breast milk, formula or alternative baby foods. In the first year babies can suck whole cow’s milk. As to lower-fat milk, it must not be preferred until baby is two to three years old. Infants need to sleep up to eighteen hours a day. Babies begin to walk nearly withen one to two ages. Parents carry infants in the armful, hold in baby slings, and push baby carriers, strollers or baby carriages until they walk.Child safety latch and child safety seat is manufactured by automotive industry. Parents change the diapers until newborns’ potty training or toilet training age. Babyhood is a period in which newborn grows physically and psychologically together. In a few words, at the beginning of the two months infants practice tonic spasm of neck and neck reflex! Starts to show emotion like crying! Third months babies are able to turn prone position! Fourth and fifth months turn to supine position! Sixth to ninth months newborn alternate to sitting position or can crawl on all fours! Besides babies begin to pull themshelves up by holding onto wares such as table, chairs etc.! Tenth and eleventh months can walk around with somebody’s help! Twelfth months can walk alone and begins climbing and getting down! Fifteenth to twentieth months can run and practice to climb stairs in a creeping and upright position! Twenty first and twenty fourth months try walking backward and forward on toes, run and climb safetly! In infancy newborn can understand objects as they see or feel it! After the second year they become curious by cognitive performance development.

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