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A goiter is puffiness in the thyroid gland. The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland is one of the main endocrine glands. The thyroid gland is positioned in the neck just below Adam’s apple or thyroid cartilage. In some cases thyroid gland dysfunctions cause thyroid gland enlarge in size than normal. Thyroid gland enlargement is a disorder of thyroid known as goiter, goitre, thyrocele, thyromegaly and struma. The thyroid gland in short thyroid discharges two kinds of main hormones: Triiodothyronine symbol-T3 and thyroxine which can at times be passed on as tetraiodothyronine symbol-T4. T3 and T4 flow in your bloodstream in order to control and regulate your functioning of metabolism. They both maintain the rate of metabolism of energy, calcium metabolism, fat and protein metabolism and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism etc. Yet another gland named pituitary and besides hypothalamus which is a region at the bottom of brain have power over T3 and T4 hormones. Hypothalamus and pituitary gland check through and regulate T3 and T4 levels in blood. The goitre process starts when the hypothalamus determines a risk and lack in thyroid hormone levels. It warns pituitary gland to excrete thyroid-stimulating hormone symbol TSH. When pituitary gland produces a certain amount of TSH for checking on the rates of T3 and T4 in blood circulation, in turn, thyroid gland releases and regulates thyroxine and Triiodothyronine hormones against the amount of TSH it is given from the pituitary gland. Having a thyromegaly or goiter does not in the same meaning of thyroid is in lack of working normal. Even though when thyroid gland is enlarged, it may go on producing normal levels of hormones. Which factors may cause thyroid gland to enlarge? The most common causes of thyroid gland enlargement and goiter are: Iodine deficiency: 1- Iodine, is a toxic gas which is necessary for the creation of thyroid hormones. Iodine is included mostly in sea water and in the soil in coastal regions.

2- Graves’ disease: Body’s immune system discharges protective antibodies. However, sometimes antibodies wrongly attack thyroid gland. In order to defend itself, thyroid gland secretes excess hormone known as hyperthyroidism. As a result of this overstimulation thyroid gland swells. 3- Hashimoto’s disease: Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder which damages thyroid gland so that it discharges poor hormone known as hypothyroidism. Against immediate notification pituitary gland releases excess TSH in order to stimulate the thyroid but forced thyroid gland becomes to enlarge. 4- Multinodular goiter: In this kind of thyroid disorder, nodules which are solid or fluid-filled lumps form in both sides of gland and cause it to enlarge. 5- Thyroid cancer: Thyroid cancer is most common develops as an enlargement on one side of the thyroid gland. 6- Pregnancy: Human chorionic gonadotropin in short HCG hormone discharged during pregnancy, may reason thyroid gland to be enlarged. What are the symptoms of thyroid gland enlargement or struma? Goiters rarely have symptoms. When it signs they are: 1- A noticeable bump at the bottom of neck that may especially visible as men shave or women makeup. 2- A sense of tightening in the throat. 3- A fit of coughing. 4- A sore throat and hoarseness. 5- Swallowing difficulty. 6- Breathing difficulty. Goiters may have an effect on everyone at anytime all through lifetime. A number of risk factors for thyrocele are: 1- Iodine deficiency: People who live out of coastal regions should have iodine supported dietary or iodine supplements. 2- Sex: Female are more prone to disorders of thyroid. 3- Age: Thyroid disorders commonly increase with mid-fifties and over.4- Genetics: Family medical history with autoimmune disease. 5- Pregnancy and menopause: Women are more prone to struma during pregnancy and menopause. 6- Radiation exposure: Radiation treatments may cause goiters.

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