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The medical term gastritis explains a series of stomach diseases or disorders that beginning with the inflammation of stomach wall or the lining of the stomach. The wall of the stomach is protected with a mucus-like epithelial tissue known as gastric mucosa in order to prevent the digestive system from gastric juice acids. Due to several reasons epithelial tissue of the stomach becomes damaged and weakened. In such circumstances, gastric mucosa can not be protected against digestive juices and acids. As a natural consequence gastric juices cause the wall of stomach to damage and inflame. There are two types of gastritis: Acute gastritis and chronic gastritis. In acute gastritis the stomach inflammation develops suddenly lasts for the short term. In chronic gastritis the stomach inflammation develops gradually and lasts for a long term. In fact, gastritis is a treatable and preventable disease. However, an untreated gastritis may lead to stomach ulcers and stomach cancer. The gastritis syndromes include: 1- Having heartburn and flatulence. 2- A gnawing ache burning pain in the upper abdomen. 3- Feeling of nausea and vomiting. 4- Abdominal pain and bloating especially after meals.4- In severe cases, patient may have blood in his/her nausea and vomiting or stools may be bloody. There are a lot of risk factors that increase one’s risk of gastritis: 1- Bacterial infection: Those who are infected with Helicobacter pylori can most commonly practice chronic gastritis. Helicobacter pylorus is a contagious bacterium. However, those who are infected with this bacterium may not experience any complications of gastritis or ulcers. Although the reason is unclear, health authorities believe active gastritis and stomach ulcerous vulnerability risk becomes higher with family history or lifestyle choices. These lifestyle choices may be using more alcohol, smoking and unhealthy diet.2- Analgesic consumptions or regular use of pain relievers: Usage of analgesics can cause both acute and chronic gastritis. 3- Older adults more commonly tend to an increased risk of gastritis rather than younger groups are. For, the stomach wall gets thinner with age.

Besides, older adults are more prone to have Helicobacter pylori infection or autoimmune disorders. 4- Excessive alcohol useage causes acute gastritis. For, alcohol irritates stomach wall and makes it vulnerable to digestive acids. 5- Being under a lot of stress can also lead to acute gastritis. Besides, severe stress may result from burns, injury, severe infections or surgery. 6- Bile reflux disease is another cause of gastritis. 7- There is a type of gastritis known as autoimmune gastritis in which produced a reaction by the body’s immune system against at the stomach’s protective lining. Autoimmune gastritis is more accompanied with other autoimmune disorders such as Hashimoto’s disease, diabetes type 1 and vitamin B-12 deficiency. 8- Acude and cronic gastritis may arise because of some other conditions and disorders such as AIDS, Crohn’s disease, HIV and parasitic infections. If gastritis left untreated, it may lead to stomach bleeding or stomach ulcers. Some types of chronic gastritis left untreated may increase the risk of stomach cancer. The tests and exams in order to diagnose gastritis are: 1- Tests for Helicobacter pylori bacterium: Helicobacter pylori bacterium tests can be done with three methods. These methods are blood test, breath test and stool test. 2- Endoscopy is a procedure in which the digestive system is examined with the help of a scope. If a suspicious region is found during endoscopy, the surgeon may take out tiny tissue samples and may require biopsy.3- X-ray is used in order to examine the upper digestive system. Gastritis Treatment depends on its specific cause. If it is a form of acute gastritis reasoned by alcohol or NSAIDs, then it may be treated by quiting useage of these substances. However, chronic gastritis reasoned by Helicobacter pylori bacterium infection can be treated with medications. Drug therapy used to treat cronic gastritis include: Antibiotic medications in order to kill Helicobacter pylori bacterium, medications that block acid production and promote healing, Medications to reduce acid production such as acid blockers, antacids that neutralize stomach acid.

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