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Epilepsia is a serious brain complication. Seizure disorder is a brain condition that ends up from the surges in electric waves inside the brain. Even mild epileptic attacks should be treated each kind of seizures may be dangerous during daily activities. For example it may be unsafe as driving or swimming. The signs and symptoms of epilepsy are epileptic attacks or seizures. The nonstandard action of brain cells cause epileptic attacks and seizures. In due course of epileptic attacks and seizures the brain coordinates can be affected like: 1- Temporary mental confusion. 2- Transient loss of consciousness and awareness stage. 3- Uncontrollable jerking reflex of arms and legs. There are two types of epileptic attacks. 1- Focal or partial seizures. 2- Generalized seizures. Focal or partial seizures: If fits occur as a result of atypical activities in just one division of the brain known as hemisphere these episodes are categorized in focal or partial seizures. Focal seizures are classified into two groups. Simple focal seizures do not end up in loss of consciousness. Complex focal seizures cause the patient to lose his/her consciousness or awareness for a short timeframe. Generalized seizures: If fits occur as a result of atypical activities in whole of the brain these episodes are categorized in generalized seizures. Generalized seizures are classified into six groups. Absence seizures or named petit mal, atonic seizures, clonic seizures, myoclonic seizures, tonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures or called grand mal. What can be the causes of epilepsy? 1- Genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility. 2- Epilepsy may apperar because of traumatic injuries or head traumas such as a car accident. Medical disorders like heart attacks or strokes that can damage the brain may lead epilepsy. 3- Dementia patients may be the candidates of epilepsy among older adults. 4- AIDS, meningitis and viral encephalitis diseases may lead to epilepsy.

Babies who had brain damage known as prenatal injuries before birth because of poor nutrition or oxygen deficiencies may have risk of epilepsy. Epilepsy may at times join together with other developmental disorders, such as autism and Down syndrome. The risk of epilepsy depens on certain factors. The age: The age of onset of falling sickness disease is generally for the duration of early childhood and over 65 years of age. The sex: Men are more commonly prone to epilepticus rather than women. To have a family history with seizure disorder increases risk of developing epilepsy. Head injuries and head traumas or skull fractures may lead to epilepsy. Therefore in order to prevent such injuries one should wear seat belt or helmet while he/she riding motor vehicles. All kinds of vascular diseases or stroke may cause to brain damage which may trigger epilepsy. However, the risk of these kinds of diseases can be prevented by stoping smoking, drinking less alcohol, having healthy diet and exercising in routine. Brain or spinal cord infections may develop the risk of epilepsy. Prolonged attacks in babyhood or childhood as high fevers may sometimes cause seizure disorder later in life, especially for individuals with a family tree of epilepsy. Epileptic attacks or fits may lead some dangerous complications such as falling, drowning, causing car accidents, pregnancy problems, psychological problems. In order to diagnose epilepsy the following tests and exams are required: Blood and neuropsychological tests, besides, neurological and behavioral exam. Electroencephalogram, EEG-Computerized tomography, CT- Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI- Functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI- Positron emission tomography, PET- Single-photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT. If you have epilepsy by noticing and understanding your situation you can control it. How can you control? Taking your medications correctly, getting adeque sleep, learning stress management and wearing a medical alert bracelet.

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