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What is diabetes mellitus? To comprehend diabetes depends on learning the normal process of digestive system. After we have our meals, the nourishment is digested and turned into a kind of sugar named glucose. Glucose enters our blood circulation and give energy to our bodies. Meanwhile, pancreatic gland reduces a hormone called insulin. Insulin feature in moving glucose from the circulation into the whole cells of our organs as lung, fat, hearth, muscle, liver, skin, brain, etc, in where it can be stored up as energy or fuel. This case occurs because of insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance or both. The reasons are: Pancreas fails to discharge enough insulin hormone. The body cells can not react to insuline routinely. Both of these two reasons. Diabetes mellitus, often just known as diabetes, is a series of metabolic disturbance and cronic metabolic diseases in which an individual has high levels of sugar in the blood. The typical signs of diabetes mellitus are: Frequent urination known as polyuria, pollakiuria or thamuria; excess thirst known as polydipsia; increased feel of hunger and starvation known as polyphagia or hyperphagia. There are three basic forms of diabetes mellitus: 1-Type I diabetes: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in short IDDM or juvenil diabetes mellitus in short JDM. In type 1 diabetes insulin-producing cells of the pancreas fails to produce insulin and diabetic patient needs injection of insulinuse. 2- Type II diabetes: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in short NIDDM, ketoacidosis-resistant diabetes, ketosis-resistant diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes or adult-onset diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes somatic cells can not use insulin as it should be and at times come together with a complete insulin deficiency. 3-Gestational diabetes mellitus is glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is the rising of the blood sugar level in pregnant female who have never had diabetes before. It may lead growth of type 2 diabetes.

Then, how diabetes can be treated? Treatment of diabetes consists of medicines, diet, and exercise. to control blood sugar and prevent symptoms and problems. In order to get under control cholesterol, blood glucose level, blood sugar and blood pressure values in diabetics assists to lower the risk of heart attack and stroke. Besides, prevents eye, kidney and nervous system diseases. If diabetes mellitus is untreated and uncared, then it may lead to further severe complications such as light sensibility, vision disorders, blindness, skin and leg infections, nerve damages, kidney damages, irreversible renal damage. There is not any alternative to prevent type 1 diabetes. However, keeping fit and ideal weight besides leading an active, dynamic and energic lifestyle habits may prevent type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes control can be checked throughout blood tests and urine analysis. These tests are blood pressure, preprandial blood glucose, HDL cholesterol level, LDL cholesterol level, total cholesterol level and triglyceride level control tests. What are the causes of metabolic syndrome and diabetes? Overweight and obesity. Excess weight causes insulin resistance. Insulin hormone controls and keeps blood lucose level in normal. However, insulin resistance blocks the body against using insulin. Thereupon, blood sugar, blood lipid and blood fat levels increase. The other risk factors of metabolic syndrome and diabetes are aging, hormone changes, malnutrition, smoking, drinking alcohol, genetics. inactiveness and lack of exercise. What can be done in order not to cause diabetes? Do not smoke. Do not drink alcohol to excess habitually. Try to learn and practise principles of healthy nutrition. Keep fit. Do regular exercise. Lose weight. Cut back on liquids which contain much sugar such as carbonated non-alcoholic beverages, soft drinks and fruit juices. Do not skip meals. Prevent eating complex carbohydrates such as rice, bread, pastry and ice cream in generous and big portion.

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