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Bronchitis is an airway inflammation of the lining and tissue of the bronchial tubes or mucous membranes of the bronchus in which airflow is passed through from the trachea into the pulmonary or lungs. Bronchitis is classified into two types as acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis oftenly develops from a common cold or other respiratory tract infections both in children and adults. Acute bronchitis is very common especially during the wintertime. Acute bronchitis usually advances in a few days and of no effects, even though coughing goes on for days. However, if one has repeated short periods of acute bronchitis, he/she may have chronic bronchitis, which needs adequate medical care. Chronic bronchitis is a more serious and irritative form of inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes which may end up chronic lung disease known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in short COPD. COPD is often due to smoking. The symptoms for both acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis are: Productive cough, cough and sputum complaint, sign of physical and mental fatigue, mild temperature, fever with chills and chest pain. The difference between acute bronchitis and cronic bronchitis signs and symptoms are: In acute bronchitis one has a nagging cough that remains for more than a few weeks after the bronchitis resolve the difficulties. In chronic bronchitis one has a cough and bilious sputum that continues three months to two years. Sometimes, productive cough may disappear but then return afterward. Acute bronchitis is generally sourced by viruses, usually the equal viruses that reason colds and influenza virus. The most widespread source of chronic bronchitis is smoking. Air pollution epidose, house dust mites, dust in workplaces and toxic gases in the environment also may cause chronic bronchitis. Which factors increase risk of bronchitis? 1- Smokers and passive smokers are under the highest risk of either acute bronchitis or chronic bronchitis.

2- Having low resistance or weakness of immune system because of another illness. 3- Exposure to irritant agent, chemical pollution and chemical fumes because of one’s job. A person should seek medical advice if he/she has: 1- Fit of coughing lasts over three weeks 2- Coughing spell prevents sleeping 3- High fever as 38 C 4-Complaints of fever cough and palpitation 5- Phlegmy cough with discolored mucus 6- Bloody musuc known as hemoptysis. Bronchitis treatment depands on reducing symptoms and easing patient’s breathing. If acute bronchitis is not cared, repeated bouts of acute bronchitis may result in asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, chronic sinusitis, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia and tuberculosis. To diagnose bronchitis the chest disease specialist may ask for a physical exam in order to distinguish the signs it from those of a common cold. During the physical examination, pulmonologist uses a stethoscope to listen in to patient’s lungs as he/she breathes. In addition to this, you may be asked for chest x-ray, sputum culture and a series of pulmonary function tests. Chest x-ray determines the real reason of cought whether it is a result of pneumonia or any other condition. Sputum culture is a kind of test which determines bacteria type in sputum produced with cough whether it is whooping-cough called pertussis or another illness. Pulmonary function test is performed with a device named spirometer in which patient blow into. Spirometer is used for symptoms of asthma or emphysema. To reduce the risks of bronchitis please pay attention these following tips: Avoid smoking. Smokers are under a great risk of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Be and get vaccinated. Acute bronchitis is generally a result of influenza virus. You can have influenza control with getting a yearly flu vaccine or influenza vaccine. Wash your hands frequently against catching a viral infection and try to use hand sanitizers.

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